MIKHAIL JAROSLAVICH TVERSKOY
Grand Duke of All Russia, Prince of Tver and Grand Duke of Vladimir. He waged a continuous struggle with Novgorod and with the Moscow prince Yuri Danilovich. Mikhail Yaroslavich Tverskoy was the first to begin the unification of the Russian lands, the first to receive the title of Grand Duke of All Russia, the first to be defeated in open battle by the Tatar cavalry, hitherto unrecognized. A talented military commander, a far-sighted politician, a patriot of his country, Mikhail Yaroslavich played, without exaggeration, one of the key roles in the history of the formation of Russian statehood. But not only state affairs make his figure so significant. Mikhail Yaroslavich performed a spiritual feat, which is extremely difficult to find analogues: he sacrificed his own life, saving his native land from ruin. Immediately after his martyrdom the Tverites began to honor the prince as their heavenly intercessor, and two hundred years later the Russian Orthodox Church officially ranked him as a saint.
The year of Afanasy Nikitin’s birth is unknown. Extremely scarce and information about what made this merchant undertake in the late 1460’s a risky and long journey to the East, toward the three seas: Caspian, Arabian and Black. On this journey, he described in his notes, entitled as “The Journey of the Three Seas.” The exact date of the beginning of the journey is also not known. In the XIX century II. Sreznevsky dated him 1466-1472 years, modern Russian historians (VBPerhavko, LSSemenov) believe that the journey was made in 1468-1474. According to their data, a caravan of several ships, uniting Russian merchants, departed from Tver along the Volga in the summer of 1468. The veteran merchant Nikitin had previously visited distant countries – Byzantium, Moldavia, Lithuania, Crimea – and returned safely home with an overseas commodity. In India, he stayed about three years. On the way back he passed away. The place of burial is conditionally considered to be Smolensk. The monument to Afanasy Nikitin in Tver was opened on May 31, 1955. It is under state protection. Moscow sculptors S.M. Orlov and A.P. Zavalov, the architect G.A. Zakharov.
IVAN ANDREEVICH KRYLOV
The fabulist and playwright I.A. Krylov was born on February 13 (2), 1769, in Moscow to the family of the poor army captain Andrei Prokhorovich Krylov, who during the Pugachev rebellion was in one of the Ural fortresses and showed himself to be a skilful and brave officer. In 1774, A.P. Krylov retired and settled in Tver. Soon he became chairman of the provincial magistrate, where he served until his death in 1778. Mother of the writer – Maria Alekseevna, forever remained for IA. Krylov the most native person. He believed that “she was a simple woman without any education, but intelligent by nature, full of high virtues.” Children’s years of the future fabulist were held in Tver. This period of life (1774-1782) largely determined his future destiny and creativity.
Traveling across Russia, the poet came to the Tver province, according to the estimates of the researchers, 28 times. He visited Torzhok, Georgians, Pavlovsky, Kurovo-Pokrovsky, Staritsa, Vyshny Volochke, but especially loved Malinniki, Pavlovsky and Bernovo, who were part of the Staritsa Uyezd. In Tver A.S. Pushkin used to travel mainly, stayed at the Hotel Galiagni. In the Tver places many works known now were written: Anchar, Poet and the crowd, Winter morning, chapters from Eugene Onegin, Dedication to the poem Poltava and many others. In the article of A.S. Pushkin “Journey from Moscow to St. Petersburg” several chapters are named after the cities of Tver and villages (Gorodnya, Tver, Mednoye), their content is associated with these metas. Those places of the region where the great Russian poet lived and worked, unites the tourist and literary Pushkin Ring of the Upper Volga: Tver – Torzhok – Vyshny Volochok – Staritsa – p. Malinniki, Georgians – Pavlovsk – Bernovo – Tver. In Torzhok and Bernovo there are Pushkin’s memorial museums. In Tver there are two monuments to the poet. The first was opened in June 1972 at the Theater Square in the days of Pushkin’s poetry festival. The second monument to the poet was opened in May 1974 in the city garden during the celebration of the 175th anniversary of his birth. The street of the central district of the city of Tver (formerly Galyanov Street) since 1918 is named after A.S. Pushkin. To the 100th anniversary of the death of the poet – 1937 – the area of the Kindergartens was renamed as A.S. Pushkin.
IVAN IVANOVICH LAZHECHNIKOV
Ivan Ivanovich Lazhechnikov was born September 14, 1792 in Kolomna, Moscow province. In 1831, Ivan Lazhechnikov was appointed director of the colleges of Tver province. In Tver, he wrote his most famous novel, The Ice House. In 1837, he settled in a village in the estate Konoplino near Staritsa, where in 1838 he finished the novel “Basurman”, mostly written in Tver. Here he wrote a drama in verse “Oprichnik”. In Konoplino, Lazhechnikov was visited by V.G. Belinsky and N.V. Stankevich. In 1842 – 1854 I. Lazhechnikov served as vice-governor in Tver and Vitebsk in 1856 – 1858 – censor in the St. Petersburg censorship committee. His last activity was very painful, although it coincided with the time of easing censorship.
ALEXEY FEDOROVICH GOLOVINSKY
Alexei Fedorovich was a merchant of the first guild, hereditary honorary citizen, City Head, philanthropist. Born in 1810 in St. Petersburg, the serf princess AA. Golitsyna. He got free in 1840, and from 1841 he lived in Tver. A.F. Golovinsky, freed from the bonds of serfdom, gave 30 years to the disinterested service of Tver and its citizens. His astonishing constant readiness to render feasible material assistance for the benefit of the needy was manifested in numerous monetary donations. Being the City Head, he, with his usual energy and perseverance, solved all urgent problems of the city to protect residents from flooding, lighting of main streets, construction of the first water pipe with external fire-fighting wells, baths, schools, organization of a girls’ gymnasium, public library, museum, first in Tver and the province of the obstetrical institution with a school for training midwives, improving effective firefighting and much more.
MIKHAIL EVGRAFOVICH SALTYKOV-SHCHEDRIN
Russian writer, publicist Mikhail Evgrafovich Saltykov was born in 1826 in the village of Spas-Ugol Kalyazinsky district of the Tver province (now Taldom district of the Moscow region). From ten years he was brought up in the Moscow Nobility Institute, and then in the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. In 1848, for publishing the stories “Contradictions” and “Confused business” he was arrested and exiled to Vyatka. In 1860, Mikhail Evgrafovich was appointed vice-governor in Tver. In Tver M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin became friends with representatives of the liberal nobility. As the administrator initiated dozens of prosecutions of landlord-criminals, removed from the service mired in official misconduct of local administrators. Actively promoted the implementation of the reform of 1861. In February 1862, probably, according to the unofficial proposal of the authorities, M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin resigned. In 1864-1868 he headed the state chambers in Penza, Tula and Ryazan. In 1868, by order of the tsar, he was dismissed in final resignation with the prohibition to hold any office in the civil service. At the same time he accepted the invitation of NA. Nekrasov become a member of the magazine “Otechestvennye zapiski”, designed to replace the “Contemporary” closed in 1866. After the death of NA. Nekrasov headed the editorial board of the journal. Tver impressions were reflected in the “Satires in Prose”, “The Stories of a City”, “Pompadours and Pompadours” and other works.
VARVARA ALEKSEEVNA MOROZOVA
Russian entrepreneur, director of the Association of Tver Manufactory of Paper Products, the largest Moscow philanthropist and philanthropist. Varvara Khludova was born in Moscow on November 2, 1848. Married her early, for Abram Abramovich Morozov. After the death of her husband, Varvara inherited a textile factory, one of the largest in Russia. She took the “Association of Tver Manufactory” in her own hands, every Thursday on Thursdays coming to Tver from Moscow. Expansion of sales, profitable purchases of raw materials, cheap labor – all this brought tremendous profits. Morozova was practical and efficient, well-oriented in commercial matters. Carrying out a strict management policy, she did not forget about improving the living conditions of her workers, and about charity in the city where production was located. The money received from the factory allowed Morozova to be a generous patron of art. Her name was one of the first among philanthropists supporting the work of women’s courses, scientific laboratories. One of her most famous children was the so-called Prechistenka courses for workers, who eventually became the educational center of the Moscow proletarians. Lectures came to listen to one and a half thousand people. V.A. Morozova regularly helped the Tver Charitable Society “Doropotnaya Kopeyka” and the Tver Nicholas sobriety society “Mir”.
ALEXANDER VASILYEVICH ALEXANDROV
Alexander Vasilievich Aleksandrov lived in Tver for a total of 12 years, from 1906 to 1918. These are the years of the formation of the personality of the young talented musician, the time of his active musical and educational activity. And although Tver was not his homeland, Alexander Vasilievich left in the musical life of the city a deep trace and grateful memory. The famous author of the anthem of the Soviet Union and the song “Sacred War” began his musical career in Tver as regent of the bishop’s choir. A.V. Alexandrov directed the choruses of the real school and the male gymnasium, the women’s commercial school and the zemstvo courses, the theological seminary and the school of the Morozov weavers. He happily combined great musical talent with organizational skills, and the scale of his activities was truly enormous. A.V. Alexandrov lived in Tver in a small wooden house in the place where the shoe shop Sapozhok was located, and he occupied the second floor there. Alexander Vasilyevich collected in his house almost all the musicians of the city. These house gatherings were remembered by the Tverites for many years, because they gave spiritual music to music lovers, and the city was created a precious musical aura.
ANDREY N. TUPOLEV
He was born in the village of Pustomazovo (now not preserved) in the Kimrsky district. He graduated from the Tver Men’s Gymnasium in 1908, the Moscow Higher Technical School in 1918. He began his design work in 1922. In 1937-1941, he was repressed, but continued to work in the design bureaus of the NKVD. Under the guidance of A.N. Tupolev developed more than 100 types of aircraft, which have 78 world records, 28 unique flights. Among them – the best front-line dive-bomber of World War II TU-2, first used on the Kalinin front. In 1953 he became an academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences, in 1968 he was awarded the rank of colonel-general-engineer. He was awarded the Lenin Prize in 1957, the State Prize in 1943, 1948, 1949, 1952, 1972. Three times Hero of Socialist Labor (1945, 1957, 1972). In 1973, in Tver, on the building where A.N. Tupolev (now Tver Medical Academy), a memorial plaque is installed. In the same year, his name was named the street in the Zavolzhsky district (the former Savvatiev branch).
VLADIMIR MODESTOVICH BRADIS
Soviet mathematics teacher. He graduated from the Petrograd University in 1915, a professor and doctor of pedagogical sciences. In 1920-1959 he worked at the Tver Institute of Public Education (now Tver State University). Since 1959, after retiring, he supervised postgraduate students, in 1965-1971 he was a professor-consultant. The main works of Bradis are devoted to the theoretical and methodological development of the issues of improving the computing culture of high school students. His “Methodology of Teaching Mathematics in High School” was reprinted many times and translated into other languages. In 1921, for the first time, he published his “Tables of Four-valued Logarithms and Natural Trigonometric Values”, later published under the title “Four-valued mathematical tables”. Honored Scientist of the RSFSR (1957). Winner of the medal of K. Ushinsky.
SERGEI YAKOVLEVICH LEMESHEV
The singer, People’s Artist of the USSR Sergei Lemeshev was born in the village of Staroye Knyazevo (now Kalininsky district). He mastered the basics of musical notation and singing in the art and craft school of Strenevsky, where he participated in amateur performances and concerts, and played at the NA Theater. Kvashnina on the Small Farm near. Ivanovo. In 1918 – 1918 he studied with the singer E.N. Kvashnina. In 1920 – 1921 he studied at the Tver Cavalry School of the RKKA, where he received a direction for studies at the Moscow Conservatory. In 1931 – 1965 he was a soloist of the Bolshoi Theater of the USSR, acted as a concert singer. Repeatedly performed in Tver in the hall of the House of Officers and the Drama Theater.
BORIS NIKOLAEVICH POLEVOY
Writer, public figure, Hero of Socialist Labor (1974). Born March 17, 1908 in Moscow in the family of a lawyer. In 1913 the family moved to Tver. Even in school years, he became interested in journalism, his first article appeared in the provincial newspaper Tverskaya Pravda in 1922, when he was a pupil of the 6th grade, and since 1924 his notes and correspondence about the life of the city began to appear regularly on the pages of Tver newspapers. Plots of many works BN. Field are connected with the Tver region: the first book of essays “Memoirs of a lousy person” (Tver, 1927); “Hot shop” (1939), “The Story of a real man” (1946), “We are Soviet people” (1948), “Gold” (1949); “Doctor Vera” (1966) and many others. Military events, which he witnessed, are reflected in essays, later combined in the book “From Belgorod to the Carpathians” (1945). In 1958, the journal Znamya published a novel by B. Polevoy “Deep rear”, reflecting events related to the restoration of the city of Kalinin after his release from the occupation. In 1978, “For the creation of works that truly portray the heroic and labor exploits of the Kalinin people during the Great Patriotic War and peaceful work, a major contribution to the development of the city and in connection with the 70th anniversary of the birth of BN Polevoy was conferred the title” Honorary Citizen of the City Kalinin “. In 1983, the name of B.N. Field Street named Tver (formerly Cooperative), on which he lived in house number 12. In 2006, at No. 12 on the street. B. Field set memorial plaque.
TATIANA ALEKSEEVNA USTINOVA
She was born in 1909 in the 47th barracks of the Morozov Manufactory of Tver. People’s Artist of the USSR (1961), laureate of the State Prizes of the USSR (1949, 1952), State Prize of the RSFSR them. FM Glinka (1971), professor of choreography, chief choreographer of the Academic Russian Folk Choir named after. Pyatnitsky (1938), Honorary Citizen of the city of Tver (1998). Tatiana Alekseevna Ustinova is the author of many articles and books on Russian choreography. In 2002, her work “Folk Dances of the Tver Land” was published. Materials for it were collected back in 1938. This is the seventh textbook, written by an outstanding choreographer, a patriot of the Tver land.
VASILY MAKAROVICH CHASOVSKIY
He was born on December 9, 1924 in the village of Verkhnyaya Kamyshinka in the Altai Territory in a peasant family. Member of the Great Patriotic War. In 1959, Vasily Makarovich was invited to work as a surgeon in the surgical department of the 7th city hospital Kalinin, and from September 1960 transferred to work in the Kalinin Regional Clinical Hospital. Vasily Makarovich successfully combined the work in the regional hospital with the work of the airborne surgeon, providing comprehensive surgical care in the districts of the region. Since 1974, V.M. Chasovskikh worked in the post of head of the gastroenterological surgical department of the regional hospital. Honored Doctor of the RSFSR (1978), People’s Doctor of the USSR (1985), Honorary Citizen of the City of Kalinin (1987) Vasiliy Makarovich Chasovskikh was a symbol of the whole surgical era – he headed for 30 years surgical department of the Tver Regional Clinical Hospital, one of the strongest in Russia. He willingly passed on his rich experience as a surgeon to young colleagues. In the regional hospital with his participation a whole generation of young surgeons, working both in the regional clinical hospital of the city of Tver and in the hospitals of the districts of the Tver region, has been trained.
ANDREY DMITRIEVICH DENTIEV
He was born on July 16, 1928 in Tver. Many years of the poet’s life are connected with the Tver land and the city of Tver. Here he was born, graduated from high school, studied at the Kalinin Pedagogical Institute. After the completion of the literary education in Moscow, at the Literary Institute named after A.M. Gorky (1949-1952), Andrey Dementiev returned to his native city, worked in the editorial offices of the regional newspapers Kalininskaya Pravda (1953-1955), Smena (1955-1958), then radio, was the editor-in-chief of the regional book publishing house (1958) -1961). The first poetic publication of Andrey Dementyev was held in December 1948 in the Kalinin almanac “Native Land” and in the regional newspaper. Here he became the first laureate of the Liza Chaikina Prize. Love for the native land is transferred to many of the poet’s works, such as the famous songs for the whole country “Father’s House”, “But I can not live without the Volga”, “Alyonushka”. Andrey Dmitrievich is the author of more than 40 poetry collections. According to readers’ popularity, his poetry ranks first among the 20 best books according to Russian bookstores. Poetry translated into English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Romanian, Hindi and other languages. AD Dementyev’s books were published in Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Georgia, Bulgaria and other countries.
Mikhail Vladimirovich Krug (Vorobyev) was born on April 7, 1962 in the old district of the city of Tver, which was called the Morozovsky town, now has the name “Yard of Proletarky” about which the song “My dear city” was written. The first of his poems Michael wrote at age 14, who dedicated his classmate. At the time, Mikhail Vysotsky was the idol of Mikhail. After the army, Mikhail, under the impression of his songs, began playing the guitar and singing in his style. Michael graduated in the city of Tver 39 school as a profession fitter and car repairman. In 1987, Michael successfully entered the institute, in which he learned about the author’s song contest. He takes part in it and takes first place. After that, he seriously engaged in writing songs, but not a small role in this played EI. Klyachkin, who was the chairman of the jury at the 8th festival of the author’s song, where he saw the hidden talent in Mikhail.